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How to check connection health?

Starting from v10 use:

if err := db.Ping(ctx); err != nil {
    fmt.Println("PostgreSQL is down", err)

On older versions:

_, err := db.Exec("SELECT 1")
if err != nil {
    fmt.Println("PostgreSQL is down")

How to insert zero/false value?

All Go zero values (zero, empty string, false, and nil) are marshaled as SQL DEFAULT which typically is stored as NULL. To insert zero values as is please use pg:",use_zero" tag on the field.

type Item struct {
    Available bool `pg:",use_zero"`

How to view queries this library generates?

Starting from v10 use:

import ""

    // Print all queries.
    Verbose: true,

Or you can configure PostgreSQL to log every query by adding following lines to your postgresql.conf (usually /etc/postgresql/9.5/main/postgresql.conf):

log_statement = 'all'
log_min_duration_statement = 0

Then just tail the log file:

tail -f /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-9.5-main.log

How to connect to Google Cloud SQL using proxy?

import ""

db := pg.Connect(&pg.Options{
    Dialer: func(network, addr string) (net.Conn, error) {
        return proxy.Dial("project-name:region:instance-name")

How to connect to Google Cloud SQL from App Engine (standard environment)?

// +build appengine

package myapp

import (


func NewDB() *pg.DB {
    // Connect to local instance in development
    // Environment variables can be set via app.yaml
    if appengine.IsDevAppServer() {
        return pg.Connect(&pg.Options{
            Addr:     os.Getenv("LOCALSQL_HOST")+":"+os.Getenv("LOCALSQL_PORT"),
            User:     os.Getenv("LOCALSQL_USER"),
            Password: os.Getenv("LOCALSQL_PASS"),
            Database: os.Getenv("LOCALSQL_NAME"),

    // Connect to Cloud SQL in production
    // Environment variables can be set via app.yaml
    return pg.Connect(&pg.Options{
        Dialer: func(network, addr string) (net.Conn, error) {
            return cloudsql.Dial(os.Getenv("CLOUDSQL_HOST")) // project-name:region:instance-name
        User:     os.Getenv("CLOUDSQL_USER"),
        Password: os.Getenv("CLOUDSQL_PASS"),
        Database: os.Getenv("CLOUDSQL_NAME"),

How to get last inserted id?

LastInsertId is a concept from MySQL world - PostgreSQL does not support it. Instead you should use RETURNING as described in details at Stack Overflow:

_, err := tx.QueryOne(record, "INSERT INTO test_table (x) VALUES ('x') RETURNING id", record)

Or using ORM:

_, err := db.Model(&record).Returning("id").Update()

Go-pg automatically scans the returned data into the model just like with SELECT id query. DB.Insert should automatically add Returning for you.

How to test / mock database?

I recommend to use real PostgreSQL database in your tests. To reset state for your tests, drop and create required tables. It may take some time, but:

  • Code is tested against real database;
  • You don't have to write mocks.

To make tests faster consider using following PostgreSQL config:

fsync = off
synchronous_commit = off
archive_mode = off
wal_level = minimal
shared_buffers = 512MB

Alternatively you can start a transaction before each test and rollback it after each test. This is faster, but does not allow to test code that uses transactions.